The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a fruit from the nightshade family native to South America.
Despite botanically being a fruit, it’s generally eaten and prepared like a vegetable.
Tomatoes are the major dietary source of the antioxidant lycopene, which has been linked to many health benefits, including reduced risk of heart disease and cancer.
They are also a great source of vitamin C, potassium, folate, and vitamin K.
Usually red when mature, tomatoes can also come in a variety of colors, including yellow, orange, green, and purple. What’s more, many subspecies of tomatoes exist with different shapes and flavor.
This article tells you everything you need to know about tomatoes.
The water content of tomatoes is around 95%. The other 5% consists mainly of carbohydrates and fiber.
Here are the nutrients in a small (100-gram) raw tomato (1):
Protein: 0.9 grams
Carbs: 3.9 grams
Sugar: 2.6 grams
Fiber: 1.2 grams
Fat: 0.2 grams
Carbs comprise 4% of raw tomatoes, which amounts to fewer than 5 grams of carbs for a medium specimen (123 grams).
Simple sugars, such as glucose and fructose, make up almost 70% of the carb content.
Tomatoes are a good source of fiber, providing about 1.5 grams per average-sized tomato.
Most of the fibers (87%) in tomatoes are insoluble, in the form of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin .
SUMMARY Fresh tomatoes are low in carbs. The carb content consists mainly of simple sugars and insoluble fibers. These fruits are mostly made up of water.
Vitamins and minerals
Tomatoes are a good source of several vitamins and minerals:
Vitamin C. This vitamin is an essential nutrient and antioxidant. One medium-sized tomato can provide about 28% of the Reference Daily Intake (RDI).
Potassium. An essential mineral, potassium is beneficial for blood pressure control and heart disease prevention
Vitamin K1. Also known as phylloquinone, vitamin K is important for blood clotting and bone health.
Folate (vitamin B9). One of the B vitamins, folate is important for normal tissue growth and cell function. It’s particularly important for pregnant women .
SUMMARY Tomatoes are a good source of several vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin C, potassium, vitamin K, and folate.
Other plant compounds
The content of vitamins and plant compounds in tomatoes can vary greatly between varieties and sampling periods .
The main plant compounds in tomatoes are:
Lycopene. A red pigment and antioxidant, lycopene has been extensively studied for its beneficial health effects.
Beta carotene. An antioxidant that often gives foods a yellow or orange hue, beta carotene is converted into vitamin A in your body.
Naringenin. Found in tomato skin, this flavonoid has been shown to decrease inflammation and protect against various diseases in mice.
Chlorogenic acid. A powerful antioxidant compound, chlorogenic acid may lower blood pressure in people with elevated levels.
Chlorophylls and carotenoids like lycopene are responsible for the rich color of tomatoes.
When the ripening process starts, the chlorophyll (green) is degraded and carotenoids (red) are synthesized .